Oh, The Places You’ll Go

You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself in any direction you choose. You’re on your own. And you know what you know. You are the guy who’ll decide where to go. – Dr. Seuss

I’ve always loved Dr. Seuss and I have always been taken by his wit and wonderfully worded sayings. So many great and wonderful quotes and rhymes, all things that a growing child needs. I grew up with Dr. Seuss, and I’m pretty sure my family owns every book that he has ever written (though there are a few missing from this post, they were probably snatched by a sneetch).

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My favorite character in all of Dr. Seuss’ work was Horton the elephant. This very may be why my favorite animal is the elephant, all because of this loving character. I was always taken by his selflessness and his love for others. Horton cared for those whom he owed nothing, and never broke a promise that he made.

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My parents took me to see Seussical the Musical at the Hippodrome in Baltimore when I was in elementary school. I was very taken by the whole experience, and still to this day I listen to the soundtrack to inspire me to think great thinks.

seussical the musical

Seeing Horton on stage made the experience so much more real and magical for me as well.

Dr. Seuss has also played a big part in the lives of my family members as well. My sister was very taken by the underlying meanings found in Dr. Seuss’ children stories and has led a bible study for the past four years using Dr. Seuss.

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My mom is very interested in learning more about authors and how they came to be. She was interested in learning about the real “Dr. Seuss” whose name is actually Theodor Seuss Geisel.

Dr. Suess & Mr. Giesel

Dr. Seuss was a political cartoonist as well as a writer of children’s stories. A lot of his cartoons are about World War II. There is also a book out that has a collection of some of his personal artwork.

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I love Dr. Seuss’ unique sayings and all of his many quotes, so I found this book to be a good choice for me.

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As a family we went to Universal Studios in Orlando, Florida and we checked out Seuss World.

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In the first photo, my brother and I recreate the scene from The Sneetches and Other Stories where a north-going Zax and a south-going Zax refuse to move out of the way for each other. In the second, my sister, brother, and I enjoy a ride on the umbus from On Beyond Zebra. It was a fun experience for all of us and reminded us to remember our childhood and never forget to have fun and be a bit whimsical at times.

Collections List:

Seuss, Dr. (1960). Green Eggs and Ham. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1968). The Foot Book. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (2004). Gerald McBoing Boing. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1972). Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1965). I Wish That I Had Duck Feet. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1974). Great Day for Up!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1965). Fox in Socks. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1970). Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You?. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1963). Dr. Seuss’s ABC. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1968). The Eye Book. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1963). Hop On Pop. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1973).  Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are?. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1971). The Lorax. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1969). My Book About Me. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1959). Happy Birthday to You!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1962). Dr. Seuss’s Sleep Book. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1957). How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1949). Bartholomew and the Oobleck. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1956). If I Ran the Circus. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1950). If I Ran the Zoo. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1960). One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1979). On Say Can You Say?. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1957). The Cat in the Hat. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1958). The Cat in the Hat Comes Back. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1995). Daisy-Head Mayzie. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1998). Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1940). Horton Hatches the Egg. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1955). On Beyond Zebra. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1974). There’s a Wocket In My Pocket!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1965). I Had Trouble In Getting To Solla Sollew. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1953). Scrambles Eggs Super. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1986). You’re Only Old Once! New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1961). The Sneetches and Other Stories. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1984). The Butter Battle Book. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1954). Horton Hears a Who!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1947). McElligot’s Pool. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1990). Oh the Places You’ll Go. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1958). Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1987). I’m Not Going To Get Up Today!. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1975). Oh the Thinks You Can Think. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (2011). The Bippolo Seed and Other Lost Stories. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1973). The Shape of Me and Other Stuff. New York: Random House.

Seuss, Dr. (1978). I Can Read With My Eyes Shut!. New York: Random House.

Ballard, K., Ballard, M., & Williams, C. D. (2006). The Gospel According to Dr. Seuss Leader’s Guide. King of Prussia, PA: Judson Press.

Ahrens, L. & Flaherty, S. (2000). Seussical the Musical [CD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Publications. (2001)

Kemp, J. W. (2004). The Gospel According to Dr. Seuss. King of Prussia, PA: Judson Press.

Short, R. L. (2008). The Parables of Dr. Seuss. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Held, J. M. (2011). Dr. Seuss and Philosophy: Oh the Thinks You Can Think!. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Morgan, J. & Morgan, N. (1995). Dr. Seuss and Mr. Geisel : A Biography. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

Geisel, T. S. (1995). The Secret Art of Dr. Seuss. New York: Random House.

Minear, R. H., Seuss, Dr. & Spiegelman, A. (1999). Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartoons of Theodor Seuss Geisel. New York, NY: New Press.

Geisel, T. S. & Seuss, Dr. (1997). Seuss-isms: Wise and Witty Prescriptions For Living From the Good Doctor. New York: Random House.

Paper or Plastic

The old scoundrel often disguises himself, but you won’t have any trouble recognizing him, because he has a gruff voice and black feet. – The Wolf and the Seven Little Goats

Image by Hermann Vogel

Image by Hermann Vogel

According to the Association of American Publishers (AAP), from 2011 to 2012 the sale of hardcover books has gone down by 6.7%! The sale of ebooks has increased by 33.2% from 2011 to 2012, but don’t panic yet. The sale of paperback books has also increased from 2011 to 2012 and this increase was by 19.1%. People are still reading real actual paper-bound books, and the sales of actual books still exceeds that of ebooks by about 1500 million, give or take a 100 million. However, the question still remains, are we going to loose our precious books and book stores?

I would like to argue that ebooks will never fully replace paper books. I saw this first and foremost because I believe that people like books way too much. I read an article by Kane Hsieh in which he states that companies need to stop trying to make ebooks look like actual books. He argues that they are a different medium than books and should be treated as such. Ebooks can be used for more interactive reading experiences and should have different benefits that books cannot provide, but should not try and replace books. He jokes that he should be able to scroll down by double blinking, but in all honesty there could be some great innovations with ebooks that have special touch pads and holographic images. The question that he leaves unanswered however is something that appeared right away to me. Why are companies making ebooks that resemble actual books?

When Gutenberg printed his famous Bible, he did so using black letter, a typeface used to mimic actual handwritten manuscripts. Gutenberg wanted to produce more books using movable type, but created them to be familiar to something else that had existed for a longer time and which more people were familiar with. Ebooks are made to mimic actual books in order to be more familiar. Companies make the screens look like actual turning pages, and some add sound effects to sound like a page has been turned. One could argue that ebooks are going to replace actual books and are made to be similar so people will be more willing to try out something if it is more familiar to them. However, I believe they are made to be similar simply because people just love books. There have been other inventions that hint and suggest this. Perfumes and sprays have been made to smell like books, and many different and new modern book selves have been invented in order to accommodate to the home of a book lover and not an ebook lover.

Other more harder facts to note are that despite easy accessibility online to buy paper books and ebooks, studies show that readers usually do not use online bookstores to discover books. Typically they will find a book that they would want to buy somewhere else, namely a bookshop. Bookshops even have some power over online shops like Amazon. Bookshops have been known to boycott books sold on Amazon and so will not carry copies in their stores. Because of these boycotts, books that were projected to be big hits did not sell very well. People still check out bookstores and will not typically search for new books to read online.

With these things said, I just have to say that personally I will forever remain faithful to the book and will keep turning pages til my coffee cup runs dry. I love real books and it would truly break my heart if they were ever to be completely replaced by ebooks.

A house without books is like a body without a soul. – Cicero

And here is a fun video of something you cannot do with ebooks.

Bookplate

bookplate This is the book plate that I have designed. I like the idea that when one sits down with a book, they should do so whilst drinking a hot cup of coffee or tea. A tea cup to me represents homeliness and coziness all things that I believe would describe a perfect reading atmosphere. I have the phrase “From my cup to yours” in the brew because I would want any individuals who would own a book that was once mine to enjoy its flavor like I once did. I would like to think of it as a passing on and sharing of knowledge. My initials are also written largely on the front of the cup. This way they can almost hide and be just a design on the cup. I might tweek it a bit more, but I really like this design and I think it suits me well.

Edible Book Festival

On Tuesday April 9th, we had our Edible Book Festival for our Honors Seminar, The Book Beautiful. It was really a lot of fun, and as one of the two hosts, I really enjoyed the time I got to put in to make this event special. Our theme for the event was CMYK.

As a whole class, we worked on making the invitations, a few students worked on the design while the rest of us worked on cutting paper for the invitation.

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The next step was to come up with a book that I was going to try and recreate with food. I decided to do the tale called The Three Feathers from the Grimm brother’s Children’s Stories and Household Tales. I thought it fit well, especially since it is the book that I have been studying all semester.

To fit the theme of the tale, I decided that I wanted to make a ground where underneath the grass I could put a toad. To do this I looked up how to make sugar glass, that way the toad could be viewed below the grass.

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Here I am stirring the sugar mixture that would then harden and cool into the sugar glass that I need for my book.

For the toads, I made sugar cookies. To make them fit with the story, I decided to triple layer them and fill their insides with treats and surprises like pudding and sprinkles. In the tale, the toads gave the youngest brother the treasures that he needed to fulfill the tasks given by his father. So I wanted my toads to be filled with treasures that people would find as they ate the cookies.

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Then finally for the ground part, I made monkey bread. I cut out the middle of the monkey bread in order to have enough room for a toad and covered that part with the sugar glass that I made.

This was my final product!

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The other students had punny and stunning books as well! It was obvious that everyone put time and effort into their books. The event was fun and the atmosphere was made with nice piano music playing in the background was we drank tea and indulged ourselves on the many tasty books that had been made.

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And here I am dressed for our theme!

A Book’s Hidden Treasures

A mist arose from the tree, and right in the middle of the mist a flame was burning, and from the flame a beautiful bird emerged and began singing gloriously.

-The Juniper Tree

Image by Warwick Goble

Image by Warwick Goble

Cut into a tree and look at its rings. From them you can learn about its whole journey and life. With each year comes a new ring, the thick rings tell you of years with plenty of rain and lots of growth, the thin rings speak of drought.

Have you ever thought of books in this way? You can find out how old a book is from its publication

Provenance comes from the French ‘provenir’ meaning to come from. Provenance of a book refers to the history of the ownership of the book. Anything that is left in a book can become provenace. date and you can tell about its contents by the summaries on the back or on the inside folds of the dust jacket. But do you know where it has been? What readers sat in a large chair with a cup of tea flipping through the pages to pass the time on a rainy afternoon?

Ever given a book as a present? Notes written in books can tell us of their previous ownership and how someone has come to own that particular book. My high school teacher gave me this book at the end of my senior year for working hard and receiving the highest grade in her Criminal Justice class. She knew how much I liked law and knew of my future desires to become a forensic scientist. Her note in this book means quite a lot to me.

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Books can be used to press flowers and leaves in order to preserve their beauty for ages to come. The avid reader before you may have left a daisy or two in their books before passing them on to friends and family. I like to press leaves and flowers myself, the book below is one that I am using to store some of nature’s treasures.

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From the 16th century to the 19th century in Mexico, it wasn’t uncommon to see a book with a brand of fire. The edges of books were charred with a hot metal brand in order to show ownership of individuals or institutions.

When searching in Morrow Library for a book with provenance, I was able to discover a photo that had been left behind before it was given to Marshall University.

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Now what are you doing!?! Get up out of your chair, turn off your computer, and go to your local used book shop and see what you can find in the books there!

Art by Book

Mirror, mirror, on the wall,

Who’s the fairest of them all?

– Snow White

You might think that your books are the most beautiful with their splendid bindings, magnificent covers, and detailed illustrations, but you might just be mistaken. Elements of a book can make it beautiful, but books themselves can be made into beautiful objects in several other ways.

First off, there are books called Artist books that are essentially works of contemporary art. Artist books tell a story not just by what is printed on the pages but also by the way the book is designed. These books can have the traditional bound pages of a regular book, but many of the creators use scrolls, fold outs, and accordion folds to hold the pages of the book. These books are a unique way for one to show off their talents as both an artist and a writer.

Artists can also re-purpose old books in order to create a new work of art. There are many ways to make a book sculpture. Artists have taken pages to make shapes and features to add on to a currently existing book. Multiple books can be glued together to make a work of art, and the pages of books can be carved in order to depict a new scene from the pages. Book art can even be purchased for those individuals who want to own their own piece.

Work by Courtney Adam Martin

I am particularly fond of a book carving made by paper artist Cheong-ah Hwang. Hwang made a carving depicting a scene from Little Red Riding Hood. This scene was scanned and was used as the cover for Grimm Tales by Philip Pullman. Designer Matthew Young then used Hwang’s art to make a short animated video. It is really nifty how these artists came together in order to contribute and add to each other’s works.

Little Red Riding Hood (Papernoodle)

To learn more about the beautiful cover, there is a you can visit this website where you can learn more about these artists and see the short video by Pullman. More work by Hwang can be viewed his own personal website and can be purchased on Esty. More animations and covers by Pullman can be viewed on his personal website as well.

Other References:

Lorenz, A. (2002) Artist’s Books – For Lack of a Better Name. Retrieved from: http://www.angelalorenzartistsbooks.com/whatis.htm

Books That Tell A Story

If you think that only words can tell a story, then you are very mistaken. A book can be used to help tell the story with its design. By combining text and book design a new unique story can be told. Book design can be anything from the shape of the book, flaps that can unfold, wheels that turn, or a hole drilled through the center.

These elements were originally used in texts to teach subjects like astronomy, architecture, religion, etc. The first person to use a mechanical element in a book was Ramon Llull, a mystic who invented the volvelle (a revolving disc) in order to illustrate his theories about religion. This wheel was first used in a 1302 manuscript called Ars Magna.

ars magna

Books with movable parts were not designed for the entertainment of children until the eighteenth century. One of the earliest examples of these type of books are the Paper Doll Books published by S. & J. Fuller between 1810 and 1816. Other notable book designs are lift-the-flap books, like William Grimaldi’s The Toilet, and peep-shows, where an elaborate paper scene could be viewed from a hole in the cover.

The artist and cartoonist Peter Newell took book design further and made six books that all had unique elements that made for a fun read.  His first book was Topsys and Turvys published in two editions in 1893 and 1894. This book had two stories, after reading the first, the book could be flipped upside down in order to read the second.
tospys and turvys - Copytospys and turvys

In 1896, A Shadow Show was published. On each left hand page was a blank oval, but when held to the light, the silhouette of the back page would show through to complete the image.

shadow book

The Hole Book published in 1908 tracks the journey of a bullet accidentally shot by Tom Potts and is represented by a hole that had been drilled through the book.

The Hole Book

Peter Newell changed the traditional rectangle shape of a book with his The Slant Book published in 1910. This book is a parallelogram, and uses this shape to illustrate the tale of  Bobby whose Go-cart (baby carriage) breaks away from his nurse and goes racing down a steep hill.

the slant book

Peter Newell’s last book The Rocket Book published in 1912 is like that of The Hole Book, where the story revolved around a hole drilled through the book. In this case a mischievous child, Fritz, lights a rocket that he found in the basement which shoots up through the ceiling.

The Rocket Book

References:

Karr, S. (2004). CONSTRUCTIONS BOTH SACRED AND PROFANE: SERPENTS, ANGELS, AND POINTING FINGERS IN RENAISSANCE BOOKS WITH MOVING PARTS. Yale University Library Gazette78(3/4), 101-127.

Montanaro, A. (1996). A Concise History of Pop-up and Movable BooksRutgers University Library.

Peter Newell Family Papers from Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Oh, what thick skin you have, the better to bind with.

“Oh, Grandmother, what a big scary mouth you have!”

“The better to eat you with!”

~ Little Red Riding Hood

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Illustration by Arthur Rackham

The 1812 edition of Children’s Stories and Household Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm was not bound in any particular unique style or fashion. Their book was bound in a red stained leather and had a simple design with the title and authors put on the cover using gold tooling. It is unfortunate that their book was not bound later in the 1800s in England, for that was when a particular practice in binding started to become more popular. This technique is called anthropodermic bibliopegy, which might be better understood when called by it’s alternative name, human-skin binding. Their violent tales may have been well placed in a book bound in human-skin.

One of the first to bind in human-skin was Anthony Askew (1722-1774), a physician and bibliophile, who had Traité d’anatomie bound using anthropodermic bibliopegy. However, it did not become popular to bind in human-skin until it was adopted by people of the medical profession in the nineteenth century. It is believed that this practice had come out of the use of tanned human-skin in Meudon during the French Revolution.

At Meudon, there was a tannery of human skins – such of the guillotined as seemed worth flaying: of which perfectly good wash-leather was made, for breeches and other uses.” ~ Jean Gabriel Maurice Rocques, comte de Montgaillard

It was most popular in England, where the bodies of executed criminals would be given to surgeons for dissection. The skins of these individuals were sometimes taken for binding, and it was not uncommon for a volume concerning details of the crime, trial, execution, and dissection to be bound in the skin of the convict. The skin of William Burke, executed 1829, was used to bind a collection of papers about the murders committed by Burke and Hare. Many medical books were also bound in human skin, which seems appropriate for the contents that they would hold. It is reported that an edition of Mercier de Compiègne’s Éloge Du Sein Des Femmes (Praise for the Breast of Women) was bound with the skin of female breasts. There are some cases in which individuals asked for their skin to be used in binding upon their death. The astronomer, Camille Flammarion received from a countess (after she had died of tuberculous) a piece of skin from her back to be used in binding a copy of his Terres du Ciel in 1882.

Human-skin can closely resemble the skin of animals, and it can be hard to identify a book bound in human-skin unless there are obvious markers on the cover like tattoos, brandings, or nibbles from the previous individual. Binders were not ashamed of using human-skin, and it was usually stamped on the binding that it was made of human-skin, and in some cases the individual that “donated” their skin was named.

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This practice is no longer in fashion, but books can still be purchased that were bound in human-skin, and several libraries do have human-skin bindings in their collections.

References:

Carlyle, T. (1871). The French Revolution: A History. London: Chapman and Hall.

Thompson, L. (1946). Tanned human skin. Bulletin Of The Medical Library Association, 3493-102.

Thompson, L. (1949). Religatum de Pelle Human. Lexington, Kentucky: University of Kentucky.

Printing Probs

“Whoever marries my daughter is going to have to go to hell and bring back three hairs from the devil’s head.”

~The Devil and His Three Golden Hairs

The invention of printing is credited to Johannes Gutenberg, even though printing had actually been invented in China before his invention of movable type in 1440. Like most inventions, printing was met with some hostility and fear, because it was able to do that which had previously believed to be impossible. When Gutenberg printed his famous forty-two lined Bible in 1452, he sent his financial partner Joachim Furst to Paris with twelve copies to sell. Furst was chased out by the book trade guild, because the only way that he could have had so many identical copies was with the help of the devil. Books were written by hand before the invention of printing, therefore it was almost impossible to have an identical copy of a book, let alone twelve identical copies. The Grimm brothers also had some printing problems of their own, but theirs was not nearly as bad as being accused of working with the devil.

In 1805, Ludwig Achim von Armin and Clemens Brentano published their 1st volume of Des Knaben Wunderhorn, which is a collection of folk songs.

This work was actually what first sparked Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm’s interest in fairy tales, which they began collecting in 1806. They shared their tales with von Armin and Brentano and even contributed folk songs to the second and third volumes of Des Knaben Wunderhorn. Brentano was most enthusiastic about their collection of tales, and the brothers had sent him an early manuscript of their tales in 1810 before it was published in 1812. The brothers main interest was in local tales, legends, and traditions. They rejected any tales that were made up or too embellished in their search for genuine material. The original purpose of their book was to preserve the oral story telling tradition of Germany, and not to entertain. Brentano did not like their “scientific” approach and lost interest in helping them find a publisher. Armin felt sympathetic towards the brothers, and visited them in January of 1812 to read their collection. He was thoroughly impressed and was able to interest Georg Andreas Reimer of the Realschulbuchhandlung in Berlin to publish their collection.

References:

Davies, J. P. (2003). DOA: Education in the Electronic Culture, pg. 4-5. Lanham, Maryland: ScarecrowEducation.

Jacoby, P. R. (1998). From Fact to Virtual Fact: The Gutenberg Paradox Redux? Canadian Journal of Communications, 23, 3.

Michaelis-Jena, R. (1970). The Brothers Grimm. New York, New York: Praeger Publishers.

The Art of Papermaking

I promise that you can bathe in milk every morning and drink wine every day.

~ The Three Little Men in the Woods

Illustration made my Arthur Rackman

Illustration made my Arthur Rackman

When researching paper, I realized quickly that I would not be able to find the exact paper used in the Grimm’s 1812 edition of Children’s Stories and Household Tales or even of paper made in Germany at that time. I broadened my research to include papermaking of Europe in the 1800s, and that was when I stuck… well paper! Wood pulp paper was not invented until later in the 1800s, so the paper for this book was probably made with flax and hemp fibers. Papermaking was a very long process and the pages of the book were probably made according to this fashion:

To begin in the paper making process, one must first carefully select their raw materials. One very important material used is water. The quality of the water determined the quality of the paper. If the water had high iron levels the paper would be reddish or brown, and if it had high calcium concentrations, the paper would be more white. The other material needed is the fibers for the paper. Paper made between the 1400 and 1800s were usually made of 75% hemp and 25% flax fibers. Cotton was not all that common and was not used by most until the 1800s.

Retting was the first step in paper making, where the fibers were fermented in order to give them weight, remove impurities, and make them soft and uniform. Some papermakers, particularly the Dutch, skipped this step because it made the paper more brittle and gave it a yellowish tinge which would be hard to get out later. The rags of fiber were then cut in order to be beaten by stamps. The stampers beat fibers into a pulp which was ready when, according to Joseph-Jérome Lefrançois de Lalande, it was as “homogeneous as milk” and “the consistency of butter-milk”. The paper was then formed into sheets using a mould, fitted with a deckle, that was dipped in to the pulp, which was spread across the mould evenly. The mould would be flipped upside down and the pulp would be put on a damp woolen felt. The pulp would then be removed and pressed with a large wooden press, which can generate 30 to 50 pounds of pressure, to remove any excess water. The paper was then stacked into what is called a pack.

The paper was then taken to the lofts to dry in spurs of 7 or 8 sheets. When the paper had dried it would be dipped in a warm gelatin sizing solution. Gelatin sizing made the paper durable and long lasting. These sheets of paper were then dried again, pressed a few more times and then ready to be used for printing.

Barrett, T., et al. Paper through Time: Nondestructive Analysis of 14th- through 19th-Century Papers. The University of Iowa. Last modified January 17, 2012. http://paper.lib.uiowa.edu /.

Atkinson, R. I. (1976). The Art of Papermaking. (J. J. Lefrançois de Lalande, Trans.). Kilmurry, Ireland: Ashling Press. (Original work published 1791).